The Beautiful Cosmos

open your mind

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Dry shampoo: What are the cons?

So for someone like me who gets really gross greasy hair if I don’t wash it within 1-2 days of previously washing it, dry shampoo seemed like this amazing miraculous creation. Everyone knows that there is usually a dark side to something so good, I started wondering "what’s the science behind dry shampoo? what are the cons?"

image

Pros:

  • After using dry shampoo, I do not look like someone tipped all of the oil in the nordic sea over my head.
  • You won’t have to wash your hair daily. Washing your hair daily with shampoo is bad for your hair, as it strips away the natural oils that keep your hair healthy and moisturized. 
  • Dry shampoo removes the oils in your scalp, not your hair. 
  • Dry shampoo can also give your hair more volume (temporarily).

Cons:

  • Dry shampoo does not wash your hair as well as a proper rinse and shampoo would. It only takes a short while before the dry shampoo effect wears off. If you keep reusing it, the dirt and oil will accumlate and your hair will look disgusting.
  • For those of us with dry skin problems and dandruff problems, dry shampoo will only aggravate the problems. Avoid dry shampoo.

  • The cheaper brands for dry shampoo often contain aluminium. Aluminium is bad for your hair and something you should try to avoid if possible.

  • Some dry shampoos can stick to your scalp, leaving powder and flakes.

In short, dry shampoo really can be worth buying but make sure you buy the right brand for you and not a cheap version that contains aluminium or sticks to your scalp. What’s the point of buying dry shampoo if you buy a brand that just makes your hair worse? You can even try making your own! Check out this website if you want to try some DIY.

What is dry shampoo and how does it work?

Dry shampoo is a powder or a fast-evaporating liquid that your spray or work into your hair that removes excess sebum and other oils and may freshen the scent of your hair.

In short, dry shampoo works by absorbing oil onto a substance that can be brushed or blown out of your hair. It won’t remove actual dirt or skin flakes. Most stylists recommend using dry shampoo between regular shampoos to reduce the damage that normal shampoo does to your hair. It’s meant to be a temporary fix.

Read more:

http://riarankine.hubpages.com/hub/Why-Use-Dry-Shampoo-The-Pros-Cons-Brand-Choices

Filed under next post won't be so typically girly and shallow dry shampoo hair science

180 notes

Amazing artwork from whisperfall.

What happens when we sleep?

Imagine you get a healthy 8-9 hours of sleep without waking up constantly in the night (hah, I wish). What would happen in these 8-9 hours?
When we sleep we go through a reoccuring cycle that repeats itself approx every 90-110 minutes. During this cycle we experience NREM (non-rapid eye movement) and REM (rapid eye movement)  sleep. NREM is split into four stages and occurs 75% of the night, whilst REM only occurs 25% of the night.
NREM:

NREM occurs when we begin to fall asleep. We enter stage 1 when we are between falling asleep and being awake. Stage 1 is considered “light sleep”. Our muscle activity slows down and twitching is normal. It is very easy to wake someone who is in stage 1 of NREM. 
We enter stage 2 of NREM after around 10 minutes of light sleep (stage 1). Stage 2 lasts around 20 minutes and accounts for the largest part of human sleep. Breathing and heart rate start to slow down, body temperature drops and we become disengaged from surroundings. 
After 20 minutes of stage 2, we enter stage 3. The brain begins to produce delta waves, which is a type of wave that has a high amplitude and low frequency. Breathing and heart rate are at their lowest levels during this stage.
Stage 3 and 4 are known as deep sleep. If we are awakened during deep sleep we will often feel disorientated and some of us grumpy/annoyed. It is normal for children to experience bed-wetting, night terrors or sleepwalking during stage 4. A lot happens during stage 3 and 4; muscles are relaxed, blood pressure drops, breathing becomes slower, blood supply to muscles increases, tissue growth and repair occurs, energy is restored and hormones are released (such as growth hormone which is essential for growth and development). 
In my previous post about sleep, I mentioned the following:

Sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity because the chemicals and hormones that control appetite and weight gain are released during sleep.

The release of these hormones occurs in stage 4.
REM:

After NREM we experience the first REM period (usually begins about 70-90 minutes after we fall asleep). We are not conscious during this but the brain is still very active. The REM period is when most dreams occur and our eyes dart around (rapid eye movement). Breathing rate and blood pressure rise and our bodies are effectively paralysed. The paralysation of our bodies could be nature’s way of preventing us from acting out our dreams.
After REM sleep, the whole 90-110 cycle begins again and we start with stage 1 of NREM sleep! Unless, of course, are disturbed by annoying relatives or cats.
More on sleep:
http://sleepfoundation.org/how-sleep-works/what-sdhappens-when-you-sleep
 http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/articles/whatissleep.shtml

Amazing artwork from whisperfall.

What happens when we sleep?

Imagine you get a healthy 8-9 hours of sleep without waking up constantly in the night (hah, I wish). What would happen in these 8-9 hours?

When we sleep we go through a reoccuring cycle that repeats itself approx every 90-110 minutes. During this cycle we experience NREM (non-rapid eye movement) and REM (rapid eye movement)  sleep. NREM is split into four stages and occurs 75% of the night, whilst REM only occurs 25% of the night.

NREM:

NREM occurs when we begin to fall asleep. We enter stage 1 when we are between falling asleep and being awake. Stage 1 is considered “light sleep”. Our muscle activity slows down and twitching is normal. It is very easy to wake someone who is in stage 1 of NREM. 

We enter stage 2 of NREM after around 10 minutes of light sleep (stage 1). Stage 2 lasts around 20 minutes and accounts for the largest part of human sleep. Breathing and heart rate start to slow down, body temperature drops and we become disengaged from surroundings. 

After 20 minutes of stage 2, we enter stage 3. The brain begins to produce delta waves, which is a type of wave that has a high amplitude and low frequency. Breathing and heart rate are at their lowest levels during this stage.

Stage 3 and 4 are known as deep sleep. If we are awakened during deep sleep we will often feel disorientated and some of us grumpy/annoyed. It is normal for children to experience bed-wetting, night terrors or sleepwalking during stage 4. A lot happens during stage 3 and 4; muscles are relaxed, blood pressure drops, breathing becomes slower, blood supply to muscles increases, tissue growth and repair occurs, energy is restored and hormones are released (such as growth hormone which is essential for growth and development). 

In my previous post about sleep, I mentioned the following:

Sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity because the chemicals and hormones that control appetite and weight gain are released during sleep.

The release of these hormones occurs in stage 4.

REM:

After NREM we experience the first REM period (usually begins about 70-90 minutes after we fall asleep). We are not conscious during this but the brain is still very active. The REM period is when most dreams occur and our eyes dart around (rapid eye movement). Breathing rate and blood pressure rise and our bodies are effectively paralysed. The paralysation of our bodies could be nature’s way of preventing us from acting out our dreams.

After REM sleep, the whole 90-110 cycle begins again and we start with stage 1 of NREM sleep! Unless, of course, are disturbed by annoying relatives or cats.

More on sleep:

http://sleepfoundation.org/how-sleep-works/what-sdhappens-when-you-sleep

 http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/articles/whatissleep.shtml

Filed under sleep REM NREM science

25 notes

I’m sorry Patrick but I think you’re wrong this time!

B-b-but WHY?!
So let’s say that you want to watch all two seasons of Orange is the New Black (WE NEED MORE SEASONS BTW) without pausing to go outside or sleep. What is wrong with this?
1. It’s “Unhealthy”.
2. You need sleep and you will probably die because OITNB is too interesting for you to sleep. Therefore, death from lack of sleep. R.I.P.
We’ve established that we NEED sleep (or will die) but no one really knows why we need to sleep. Some scientists say that sleep gives the body a chance to recover from the day’s activities, however, we only save 50 kCal of energy from eight hours of sleep. 50 kCal isn’t much and is the same amount of energy in a piece of toast.
Oh so I can just eat a piece of toast and never sleep?
No because then you will start speaking liek dis and getvery grupmy fro reassanss you can’t remember (and probably die, R.I.P). 

If you haven’t slept in a while, the part of the brain that controls language, memory, planning and sense of time will become severely affected. Fun fact: 17 hours of sustained wakefulness leads to a decrease in performance equivalent to a blood alcohol level of 0.05%, essentially two glasses of wine!
Other consequences:
Sleep-deprived individuals often have problems with making rational judgments and the consequences of sleep-deprivation can be quite serious. Sleep deprivation is said to have been a contributory factor to a number of international disasters (Chernobyl, Challenger shuttle explosion, etc.). In other words, GO TO SLEEP.
Sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity because the chemicals and hormones that control appetite and weight gain are released during sleep. 
Horrible headaches. 
Hallucinations and delusions.


Are you getting enough sleep?
The amount of sleep people need, varies from person to person. You can take THIS test to see how much sleep YOU need. Jim Horne from Loughborough University’s Sleep Research Centre has a pretty good answer to this question: 

The amount of sleep we require is what we need not to be sleepy in the daytime.

Don’t worry if you can’t stay awake for 11 days like Randy Gardner did in 1965. Sleep isn’t for the weak, it’s just for people who feel like having hallucinations.. OR playing League of Legends all night (guilty). 
Different animals have outstanding and fascinating variations when it comes to how much they need to sleep. A python could sleep for 18 hours a day, whilst a giraffe only sleeps on average 1.9 hours a day!
Soon I too well be sleep-deprived from staying up to write this post. Next post will likely be on how we dream!
P.S:

I’m sorry Patrick but I think you’re wrong this time!

B-b-but WHY?!

So let’s say that you want to watch all two seasons of Orange is the New Black (WE NEED MORE SEASONS BTW) without pausing to go outside or sleep. What is wrong with this?

1. It’s “Unhealthy”.

2. You need sleep and you will probably die because OITNB is too interesting for you to sleep. Therefore, death from lack of sleep. R.I.P.

We’ve established that we NEED sleep (or will die) but no one really knows why we need to sleep. Some scientists say that sleep gives the body a chance to recover from the day’s activities, however, we only save 50 kCal of energy from eight hours of sleep. 50 kCal isn’t much and is the same amount of energy in a piece of toast.

Oh so I can just eat a piece of toast and never sleep?

No because then you will start speaking liek dis and getvery grupmy fro reassanss you can’t remember (and probably die, R.I.P).

If you haven’t slept in a while, the part of the brain that controls language, memory, planning and sense of time will become severely affected. Fun fact: 17 hours of sustained wakefulness leads to a decrease in performance equivalent to a blood alcohol level of 0.05%, essentially two glasses of wine!

Other consequences:

Sleep-deprived individuals often have problems with making rational judgments and the consequences of sleep-deprivation can be quite serious. Sleep deprivation is said to have been a contributory factor to a number of international disasters (Chernobyl, Challenger shuttle explosion, etc.). In other words, GO TO SLEEP.

Sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity because the chemicals and hormones that control appetite and weight gain are released during sleep.

Horrible headaches.

Hallucinations and delusions.

Are you getting enough sleep?

The amount of sleep people need, varies from person to person. You can take THIS test to see how much sleep YOU need. Jim Horne from Loughborough University’s Sleep Research Centre has a pretty good answer to this question:

The amount of sleep we require is what we need not to be sleepy in the daytime.

Don’t worry if you can’t stay awake for 11 days like Randy Gardner did in 1965. Sleep isn’t for the weak, it’s just for people who feel like having hallucinations.. OR playing League of Legends all night (guilty).

Different animals have outstanding and fascinating variations when it comes to how much they need to sleep. A python could sleep for 18 hours a day, whilst a giraffe only sleeps on average 1.9 hours a day!

Soon I too well be sleep-deprived from staying up to write this post. Next post will likely be on how we dream!

P.S:

Filed under need to sleep sleep science

1,075 notes

An Illustrated Chart for Neil deGrasse Tyson
“The very molecules that make up your body, the atoms that construct the molecules, are traceable to the crucibles that were once the centres of high mass stars that exploded their chemically rich guts into the galaxy, enriching pristine gas clouds with the chemistry of life. We are all connected to each other biologically, to the earth chemically, and to the rest of the universe atomically. It’s not that we are better than the universe, we are part of the universe. We are in the universe and the universe is in us.”
– Neil deGrasse Tyson
Originally Posted on Medium
Submitted by: http://mappleton.tumblr.com/ (Check her out!)

An Illustrated Chart for Neil deGrasse Tyson

“The very molecules that make up your body, the atoms that construct the molecules, are traceable to the crucibles that were once the centres of high mass stars that exploded their chemically rich guts into the galaxy, enriching pristine gas clouds with the chemistry of life. We are all connected to each other biologically, to the earth chemically, and to the rest of the universe atomically. It’s not that we are better than the universe, we are part of the universe. We are in the universe and the universe is in us.

– Neil deGrasse Tyson

Originally Posted on Medium

Submitted by: http://mappleton.tumblr.com/ (Check her out!)

6 notes

)

Really cute and cool vid, watch it!

Submitted by Alicia:

"Hello, Iam a grade 9 student at Dr.knox middle school.My classmates and i have created a video of a weather ballon being sent into space.We would greatly appreciate it if you post the link to your blog. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AoFrgOb-oM

Sincerly: Alicia Bozak, Thank you!”

Filed under Science Space

8 notes

A shield only lasts so long

As you may know, our ozone layer protects us from damaging UV rays. This is great considering that UV rays are capable of causing cancer in humans and reproductive problems in animals. However it turns out not only is there a hole in the ozone layer, scientists have also discovered four new man-made gases that seem to be contributing to the depletion of our protecting  shield - the ozone layer.

Layers of the atmosphere (not to scale)

What is the ozone layer?

The image above shows where the ozone layer resides, an area of concentrated ozone. Ozone gas fights both for us and against us, when ozone is at the Earth’s surface, it fights against us, as it is corrosive and harmful to breathe in. When it is concentrated in the lower stratosphere, it fights for us and protects us from the Sun’s damaging UV rays.

If the ozone layer decided to “vanish”, life on Earth would be in big trouble. Exposure to UV rays from the Sun could possibly cause 65% to 90% of melanoma of the skin, cataracts and other damage to the eye and possible other various skin problems that could lead to cancer or even death.

With this in mind it’s not hard to understand why it’s unsettling to hear that there is a hole in the ozone layer.  This hole was discovered by scientists from the British Antarctic Survery in 1985. The cause of the hole is said to be from CFC gases, which were invented in the 1920s and  used in refrigeration and as aerosol propellants in products like hairsprays and deodorants.

This global problem came with a global solution - a total global ban on production that came into force in 2010.

The four new gasses:

The University of East Anglia discovered four new gasses that can destroy ozone. Three of the gases are CFCs and one is a HCFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbon).

"Our research has shown four gases that were not around in the atmosphere at all until the 1960s which suggests they are man-made," said lead researcher Dr Johannes Laube.

The gases were discovered by analyzing polar firn (perennial snow pack). Air extracted from this snow is a natural archive of what was in the atmosphere up to 100 years ago.

Scientists haven’t been able to find out where the new gases are being emitted from yet. The three CFCs are being destroyed very slowly in the atmosphere which means that they will still be around for many decades to come, even if all emissions were stopped now.

Read more here.

Sources:

http://www.nc-climate.ncsu.edu/edu/k12/.ozonelayer

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/sc_fact.html

Filed under science ozone layer